Spinal stenosis refers to narrowing of the spinal canal or tunnel that houses the neural elements (nerves) that travel along the spinal column. The narrowing can be central stenosis (referring to the main channel) or it can be foraminal stenosis (referring to the “exit ramp” for each individual nerve root). The condition can occur in the cervical spine (neck) or the lumbar spine (lower back).
Stenosis can be caused by age-related degeneration of the spine or traumatic injury to the spine. In rarer instances, stenosis can be due to tumor, infection, or congenital anomaly (occurring at birth).