This was a presentation of the Medicare Rights Center, which was founded in 1989. it is a nonprofit organization that helps older adults and people with disabilities obtain high-quality and affordable healthcare. It is the largest independent source of Medicare information and assistance in the United States.
What is the Medicare prescription drug benefit (Part D)?
Drugs that you get during inpatient hospital stays or skilled nursing facility stays are covered by Medicare Part A. Drugs that your doctor administers, drugs you get at a dialysis facility and drugs used with certain types of equipment (like nebulizers) are covered by Medicare Part B. All other outpatient prescription drug coverage, including drugs you get at the pharmacy or through mail order are covered by Medicare Part D. Part D is available only through private insurance plans.
Details include the following:
- It is not income-based. Anyone who receives Medicare Part A and/or Part B is also eligible for Part D.
- The decision to enroll and which plan to choose should be made in consideration with one’s current needs and coverage.
How does it work?
You should choose a Part D (private drug) plan that works with your Medicare coverage. There are two ways you can get your Medicare – Original Medicare and Medicare Advantage.
- Original Medicare: This combines a stand-alone Part D prescription drug plan (PDP) with Original Medicare coverage of doctor and hospital services. (Remember your Part D drug coverage will be through a private, separate, drug plan.)
- Medicare Advantage: This is a Medicare private health plan that (with some exceptions) provides all benefits (doctors, hospitals, drugs) under the same plan (MA – PDP). This arrangement may require that you pay an additional monthly premium for medical benefits.
Drug plans vary widely and there are many from which to choose. Each plan has different costs, covers different lists of drugs (formularies), and has its own network of pharmacies.
Note from the Medicare Rights Center website
If you are in an HMO or PPO you must receive all of your medical and drug coverage through that plan. If you are in a Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) plan that does not offer drug coverage, or have a Medicare Medical Savings Account (MSA) or Medicare Cost Plan, you can enroll in a stand-alone prescription drug plan. Prior authorization is required. (Approval must be obtained from your plan before it will pay for some drugs.)
What is the cost of Medicare D?
Each plan has a different cost. Each plan’s coverage offers at least the basics outlined in Medicare law, but most plans under Medicare D look very different from Medicare’s basic plan.
Each plan charges different premiums, deductibles, and copays, and there are four different tiers of drugs:
- Tier 1: Generics
- Tier 2: Preferred brand-name drugs
- Tier 3: Nonpreferred brand-name drugs
- Tier 4 and above: “Specialty” drugs
The national average premium for a basic Part D plan was $32.50 as of 2019; but if your income and assets are very low, you can get help with the costs of Medicare D through a federal program called Extra Help.
It is important to note that navigating these rate plans can be very confusing, and the Medicare Rights Center is there to help sort this out. Their telephone number is: 800.333.4114, or you may visit them online. Their direct link is medicarerights.org.
Are all drugs covered under Medicare D?
Each plan has its own list of drugs that are covered (formulary) and its own list of in-network pharmacies. Drugs in the formulary are covered only when purchased from in-network pharmacies.
Each plan must cover almost all drugs in the following classes:
- Antiretrovirals (AIDS medications)
- Anticancer meds
Even if your drug(s) is in one of these classes, you should still check that it is included in your plan’s formulary list.
There are limitations to this coverage. In general, brand-name drugs will cost more than generic ones. Also, many drugs that are covered may have restrictions:
- Step-therapy: You must try certain medications before the plan will pay for the more expensive ones.
- Prior authorization: Approval must be obtained from your plan before it will pay for some drugs.
- Quantity limits: There may be a certain amount of a medication that a plan will approve each month.
What if drugs you need are not covered in your plan?
It can be a very complicated process to request a transition period, but your pharmacist should be able to help with this, and your doctor can request an exception to obtain continued coverage or to change to a drug that is covered. If your plan denies your exception request, get professional help to appeal (Medicare Rights Center can help).
Is help available to pay for Medicare D?
Extra Help is a federal program that helps pay for some or most of the cost of Medicare drug coverage. The level of Extra Help for which you are eligible (full or partial) depends on your income and assets. For information about the program and eligibility, see the Medicare Rights Center website.
How do I know if I should enroll?
It is an individual choice, but here are some tips to help make that choice:
- Learn about the benefit offered, know your options, and understand the enrollment penalty (see below).
- If you have coverage that is at least as good as Medicare’s basic benefit (creditable), then you can keep this. Whoever provides your coverage should be able to tell you if your coverage is creditable in writing; if you do not have this, you can call to ask for it.
- If your drug costs are high, Medicare D will probably help you save money.
- If your income is low, you can apply for Extra Help. Likewise, if you can get Extra Help, then Medicare D is a good idea.
- If you have Medicare and Medicaid, you are generally required to get a drug plan through Medicare.
- If you have no drug coverage and high drug costs, you should enroll in Medicare D.
- If you have low or no drug costs, Medicare D could cost you more now but might save you money for the future.
Options if you choose not to enroll in Medicare D
- You can enroll late, without penalty, as long as you are not without creditable coverage for more than 63 days.
- If you do not have creditable coverage, you may enroll later but will have to pay a premium penalty of one percent of the national average premium for every month you went without coverage.
- If you do not enroll when you are first eligible, you will have to wait until the next enrollment period (which is from November 15 to December 31 each year).
What if I have other drug coverage?
Some points to consider when you have drug coverage other than Medicare D:
- If it is creditable, (please see the above section entitled “How do I know if I should enroll?” for more info) you can keep it and not sign up for Medicare D.
- Some employers or retiree plans require that you sign up for Medicare D coverage or risk losing the original benefit; you would need to ask the person who administers your plan about this.
- You can switch from employer/retiree coverage to Medicare.
- If you are enrolled in a pharmaceutical assistance program, many programs require enrollment in a Medicare D program.
When and how can I enroll in a Medicare D program?
When you first qualify for Medicare, you have an Initial Enrollment Period (IEP) to enroll in the Medicare drug benefit (Part D).
- The IEP is generally a seven month period that is broken down as follows: The three months before you are eligible for Medicare, the month in which you are eligible, and the three months after you become eligible.
- Medicare health and drug coverage can be chosen during this time. Once this seven month period has ended, you are limited as to when you can disenroll, join, or change private Medicare drug plans. These additional periods are outlined below.
In addition to your IEP, you can enroll during the following periods:
- Annual coordinated election period: November 15 to December 31 each year
- There are special enrollment periods for some situations, such as moving out of your plan’s service area.
- If you have Medicaid or live in a nursing home, you may change your plan monthly.
Choose a drug plan that works with your Medicare health coverage. Here are some things to consider in selecting a plan:
- How much will it cost for the year?
- What is your monthly premium?
- What is your deductible?
- How much will you pay for each drug you need?
- Is there a coverage gap, and when would you reach it?
- Which drugs are covered by the plan?
- Are most/all of your drugs covered?
- Are there restrictions on these drugs?
- Where can you buy drugs?
- Does it work at your regular pharmacy?
- Will it cover drugs if you are traveling?
- Will it coordinate with other benefits?
Weighing your options: A summary
- If you don’t have creditable coverage, or a plan that covers your needs, then consider Medicare D.
- If you have creditable coverage, you can keep it.
- If your drug costs are high, Medicare D will probably save you money.
- If your income is low, you can apply for Extra Help, sign up for a Medicare Savings Plan, or sign up for Medicaid.
Things to remember
- Find out as much as possible and know your options.
- Make sure you check all information with the plan before you enroll.
- If you choose a Medicare D plan, make certain it is affordable, covers your needs, works at your pharmacy, and – if you already have coverage – that it works with your current coverage.
- Double-check and go over all the items of a plan to make sure it’s right for you.
- Record all information, and get it in writing!
- If your plan does not cover a certain drug, you can often appeal.
- Medicare Drug Plan Finder: medicare.gov
- 800-MEDICARE (800.633.4227)
- Call plan directly.
About the Myositis Education and Support Program at HSS
Learn more about the Myositis Education and Support Program, a free support and education group held monthly at Hospital for Special Surgery.
Summary prepared in 2009 by Suzan Fischbein, LCSW, Senior Coordinator, Myositis Support Group
Updated in 2019 by Juliette Kleinman, LCSW
LINCS (Linking Individuals in Need with Care & Services) Coordinator, Medicare Rights Center