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Thomas W. Bauer, MD, PhD

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Dr. Bauer headshot

Thomas W. Bauer, MD, PhD

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Hospital for Special Surgery
535 East 70th Street
New York, NY 10021
Hospital for Special Surgery
535 East 70th Street
New York, NY 10021

Dr. Thomas Bauer is the Pathologist-in-Chief in the HSS Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. Dr. Bauer comes to HSS from Cleveland Clinic, where he practiced in the Department of Anatomic Pathology from 1983-2017.

Dr. Bauer specializes in non-neoplastic orthopedic pathology, especially investigating the mechanisms of success and failure of reconstructive orthopedic procedures, devices and bone graft substitute materials. He is an expert in the optimum use of laboratory tests to diagnose or rule-out periprosthetic infections and is recognized as an early innovator in the application of digital imaging to surgical pathology diagnosis and research. One of his research publications related to bone graft materials has been cited by other investigators more than 1,000 times.

Patient Stories


Pathologist-in-Chief, Hospital for Special Surgery
Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College


Special Expertise

Non-neoplastic orthopedic pathology
Reconstructive orthopedic procedures, devices and bone graft substitute materials
Laboratory tests to diagnose or rule out periprosthetic infections
Application of digital imaging to surgical pathology diagnosis and research


Interpretation of bone, joint, soft tissue and general surgical pathology specimens
Evaluation of retrieved orthopedic devices
All laboratory medicine (excluding blood banking)


Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society, 1979
Neer Award from the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Society in recognition of outstanding basic science research, March 28, 2015
Peter D. Bullough Honorary Lecture in Pathology; Hospital for Special Surgery, Nov 5, 2010


American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Orthopaedic Research Society
The Hip Society
College of American Pathologists
International Skeletal Society
Arthur Purdy Stout Society of Surgical Pathologists
Digital Pathology Association



Insurance Information

Please do not hesitate to contact our office if you have questions regarding your insurance coverage. You may have coverage subject to the availability of 'out-of-network' benefits.

Industry Relationships

One of the goals of HSS is to advance the science of orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, and related disciplines for the benefit of patients. Physicians at HSS may collaborate with outside companies for education, research and medical advances. HSS supports this collaboration in order to foster medical breakthroughs; however HSS also believes that these collaborations must be disclosed.

As part of the disclosure process, this website lists physician collaborations with outside companies. The disclosures are provided by information provided by the physician and other sources and are updated regularly. Further information may be available on individual company websites.

Below are the healthcare industry relationships reported by Dr. Bauer as of December 22, 2020.

  • Acumed - Consultant
  • Leica Biosystems - Consultant
  • Moximed, Inc. - Consultant

By disclosing the collaborations of HSS physicians with industry on this website, HSS and its physicians make this information available to their patients and the public, thus creating a transparent environment for those who are interested in this information. Further, the HSS Conflicts of Interest Policy does not permit physicians to collect royalties on products developed by him/her that are used on patients at HSS.

Patients should feel free to ask their HSS physicians questions about these relationships.

Dr. Bauer in the News


University of Nebraska College of Medicine, 1979


The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1980


The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1983


Anatomic and Clinical Pathology, 1984

State Licensure

Selected Books by Dr. Bauer

Bauer TW: "The Histology of HA-Coated Implants". In: Manley MT, Geesink RGT (Eds): Hydroxylapatite Coatings in Orthopedic Surgery, Raven Press pp. 305-318, 1993.

Bauer TW, Stulberg BN: "The Histology of Osteonecrosis and Its Distinction from Histologic Artifacts". IN: Schoutens A (Ed): Bone Circulation and Vascularization in Normal and Pathological Conditions, Plenum Publishing, pp. 283-292, 1993.

Bauer TW, McCarthy JK, Stulberg BN: "Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: Histologic Diagnosis and Findings After Core Biopsy". ed: J.R. Urbaniak and J.P. Jones Jr. IN: Osteonecrosis: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, pp. 73-79, 1997.

Bauer, TW. "Basic Light Microscopy in Orthopaedic Biomedical Materials Research: Recognizing and Avoiding Common Histologic Artifacts. In: An Y, Martin KL (Eds): Handbook of Histology Methods for Bone and Cartilage. Humana Press, Totowa NJ. Pp. 561-570, 2003.

Kobayashi N, Procop GW, Sakai H, Togawa D, Bauer TW. "The molecular diagnosis of spinal infection". In:Lewandrowski, K-U (Ed).: Innovations In Spinal Reconstruction: Clinical Examples of Basic Science, Biomechanics, and Engineering, 2008.

Bauer TW. "Diagnosis of Prosthetic Infections: Frozen Sections". In: Knee Reconstruction, Replacement and Revision. Parvizi J (Ed). 2012.

Togawa D, Bauer TW, Ferrara L, Benzel, EC. "Osteointegration (Osseointegration)". In: Benzel E (Ed): Spine SurgeryTechniques, Complication Avoidance, and Management (3nd Edition) Elsevier Publ., Philadelphia. 2015.

Bauer TW, Kobayashi N. "Diagnosis of Infection: Frozen Section and Molecular Techniques" In: The Hip. Preservation, Replacement and Revision. Cashman J, Goyal N, Parvizi J (Ed). Data Trace Publ Co. Brooklandville, MD. 2015. Pp. 111-1 – 111-12. ISBN 978-1-57400-149-5

Bauer, TW. "Aseptic Lymphocyte-Dominant Vasculitis-Associated Lesion: Histology and Differential Diagnosis. In: The Hip. Preservation, Replacement and Revision. Cashman J, Goyal N, Parvizi J (Ed). Data Trace Publ Co. Brooklandville, MD. 2015. Pp. 25-1 – 25-7. ISBN 978-1-57400-149-5.

Henricks WH, Bauer TW. "Implementation of Whole Slide Imaging in Surgical Pathology". In: Pirwani A. et al. (Eds). Digital Pathology, ISBN 978-089189-6104, ASCP Press. 2016.

Selected Publications

Bauer TW, Dorfman HD, Latham JT: Periosteal chondroma: A clinicopathologic study of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 6:631-638, 1982.

Bauer TW, Geesink RGT, Zimmerman RC, McMahon JM: Hydroxylapatite coated hip stems: histologic analysis of autopsy retrievals. J Bone Joint Surg 73A:1439-1452, 1991.

Hirakawa K, Bauer TW, Stulberg BN, Wilde AH, Secic M: Characterization and comparison of wear debris from failed total hip implants of different types. J Bone Joint Surgery 78A(8):1235-1243, 1996.

Yamaguchi M, Hashimoto Y, Akisue T, Bauer TW: Polyethylene wear vector in vivo: A three dimensional analysis using retrieved acetabular components and radiographs. J Orthop Res. 17:695-702, 1999.

Bauer TW, Schils J: The Pathology of Total Joint Arthroplasty: I. Mechanisms of implant fixation. Skeletal Radiology. 28:423-432, 1999. and II. Mechanisms of implant failure. Skeletal Radiology. 28:483-497, 1999.

Bauer TW, Muschler GF. Bone graft materials: An overview of the basic science. Clin Orthop Rel Res 371:10-27, 2000.

Bauer TW, Parvizi J, Krebs V, Kobayashi N. Current Concepts Review: Diagnosing periprosthetic infections. J Bone Joint Surg 88(A):869-882, 2006.

Fujishiro T, Moojen DJF, Kobayashi N, Kobayashi H, Dhert WJA, Bauer TW. Perivascular and diffusely-distributed lymphocytes are not specific to failed metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Rel Res 469:1127, 2011.

Della Valle, C, Parvizi J, Bauer TW, DeCesare PE, Evans RP, Segreti J, Spangehl M, Watters WC, Keith M, Turkelson CM, Weis JL, Slulka P, Hitchcock K. Diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections of the hip and knee. AAOS Clinical practice guideline summary. J Bone Joint Surg Am 93:1355-1357, 2011.

Bauer TW, Schoenfield L, Slaw RJ, Yerian L, Sun Z, Henricks WH. Validation of whole slide imaging for primary diagnosis in surgical pathology. Archiv Pathol Lab Med 2013;137:518-524.

For more publications, please see the PubMed listing.

Selected Presentations

"The Interface: Present and Future in Total Joint Replacement" Royal Society of Medicine, London, England. Sept. 28, 1992.

"The Biologic Consequences of Wear Debris" Credit Lecture of The Hip Society of Japan, Fukui University, Fukui, Japan, November 20, 1992.

"The Pathology of Total Joint Arthroplasty: Why Implants Work and Why Implants Fail". Lee Riley Annual Lecture. The Johns Hopkins University. Baltimore, MD, April 12, 1996.

"The Basic Science of Bone Grafting". Charles H. Herndon International Symposium on Bone Allograft. Washington DC, April 30, 1999.

"Skeletal Substitute Materials for Orthopedic Trauma Applications". Australia Orthopedic Association, Sydney, Australia, August 15, 2001.

"Biologic Response to Motion Sparing Implants". Spinal Arthroplasty Society, Vienna, Austria. May 8, 2004.

"Maintaining Journalistic Excellence: The Peer Review Process". Closed annual meeting of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons. Chicago IL, September 14, 2006.

"Update on Diagnosing Periprosthetic Infections". The Peter D. Bullough Honorary Lecture in Pathology; Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York. November 5, 2010.

"Validating Whole Slide Imaging for Primary and Consultation Diagnosis in Surgical Pathology" 19th Congress of the Chinese Society of Pathology. Guangzhou, China. November 11, 2013.

"100 Years of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: How the Internet has Transformed Orthopaedic Research Publishing". University of Bath Biomechanics Symposium ("50-years of Musculoskeletal Research"). Sept. 12, 2016, Bath, U.K.

Research Description

Dr. Bauer’s main research focus has been to investigate mechanisms of success and failure of orthopedic reconstructive procedures, devices, and bone graft materials. He uses advanced microscopic and imaging methods to evaluate the biocompatibility of new materials, to document mechanisms of implant fixation or loosening, and to evaluate the consequences of device wear. He collaborates with surgeons, radiologists, and biomedical engineers to correlate observations made using new magnetic resonance imaging techniques, with intraoperative findings and the microscopic appearance of periprosthetic tissues. He also studies the optimum use of laboratory tests for the care of orthopaedic patients, and the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. Most recently, he has validated the use of high-resolution digital scanning of whole microscope slides for diagnosis in surgical pathology.