> Skip repeated content
photo of Thomas W. Bauer, MD, PhD

Thomas W. Bauer, MD, PhD

phone icon

About Dr. Bauer

Dr. Thomas Bauer is the Pathologist-in-Chief in the HSS Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. Dr. Bauer comes to HSS from Cleveland Clinic, where he practiced in the Department of Anatomic Pathology from 1983-2017.

Dr. Bauer specializes in non-neoplastic orthopedic pathology, especially investigating the mechanisms of success and failure of reconstructive orthopedic procedures, devices and bone graft substitute materials. He is an expert in the optimum use of laboratory tests to diagnose or rule-out periprosthetic infections and is recognized as an early innovator in the application of digital imaging to surgical pathology diagnosis and research. One of his research publications related to bone graft materials has been cited by other investigators more than 1,000 times.

Profile Video


Special Expertise

Non-neoplastic orthopedic pathology
Reconstructive orthopedic procedures, devices and bone graft substitute materials
Laboratory tests to diagnose or rule out periprosthetic infections
Application of digital imaging to surgical pathology diagnosis and research


Interpretation of bone, joint, soft tissue and general surgical pathology specimens
Evaluation of retrieved orthopedic devices
All laboratory medicine (excluding blood banking)

Patient Stories


If your insurance is not listed, please call our office if you have questions regarding your insurance coverage. If you have out-of-network benefits, then your insurance may reimburse you for a portion of your office visit. We will work with you and your insurance to minimize your out-of-pocket costs. Financial assistance may be available for patients in need.



Pathologist-in-Chief, Hospital for Special Surgery
Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College


American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Orthopaedic Research Society
The Hip Society
College of American Pathologists
International Skeletal Society
Arthur Purdy Stout Society of Surgical Pathologists
Digital Pathology Association


Anatomic and Clinical Pathology, 1984


Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society, 1979
Neer Award from the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Society in recognition of outstanding basic science research, March 28, 2015
Peter D. Bullough Honorary Lecture in Pathology; Hospital for Special Surgery, Nov 5, 2010


University of Nebraska College of Medicine, 1979


The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1980


The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 1983

State Licensure



Publications by Dr. Bauer

Selected Journal Articles

Selected Books/Chapters

Bauer TW: "The Histology of HA-Coated Implants". In: Manley MT, Geesink RGT (Eds): Hydroxylapatite Coatings in Orthopedic Surgery, Raven Press pp. 305-318, 1993.

Bauer TW, Stulberg BN: "The Histology of Osteonecrosis and Its Distinction from Histologic Artifacts". IN: Schoutens A (Ed): Bone Circulation and Vascularization in Normal and Pathological Conditions, Plenum Publishing, pp. 283-292, 1993.

Bauer TW, McCarthy JK, Stulberg BN: "Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: Histologic Diagnosis and Findings After Core Biopsy". ed: J.R. Urbaniak and J.P. Jones Jr. IN: Osteonecrosis: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, pp. 73-79, 1997.

Bauer, TW. "Basic Light Microscopy in Orthopaedic Biomedical Materials Research: Recognizing and Avoiding Common Histologic Artifacts. In: An Y, Martin KL (Eds): Handbook of Histology Methods for Bone and Cartilage. Humana Press, Totowa NJ. Pp. 561-570, 2003.

Kobayashi N, Procop GW, Sakai H, Togawa D, Bauer TW. "The molecular diagnosis of spinal infection". In:Lewandrowski, K-U (Ed).: Innovations In Spinal Reconstruction: Clinical Examples of Basic Science, Biomechanics, and Engineering, 2008.

Bauer TW. "Diagnosis of Prosthetic Infections: Frozen Sections". In: Knee Reconstruction, Replacement and Revision. Parvizi J (Ed). 2012.

Togawa D, Bauer TW, Ferrara L, Benzel, EC. "Osteointegration (Osseointegration)". In: Benzel E (Ed): Spine SurgeryTechniques, Complication Avoidance, and Management (3nd Edition) Elsevier Publ., Philadelphia. 2015.

Bauer TW, Kobayashi N. "Diagnosis of Infection: Frozen Section and Molecular Techniques" In: The Hip. Preservation, Replacement and Revision. Cashman J, Goyal N, Parvizi J (Ed). Data Trace Publ Co. Brooklandville, MD. 2015. Pp. 111-1 – 111-12. ISBN 978-1-57400-149-5

Bauer, TW. "Aseptic Lymphocyte-Dominant Vasculitis-Associated Lesion: Histology and Differential Diagnosis. In: The Hip. Preservation, Replacement and Revision. Cashman J, Goyal N, Parvizi J (Ed). Data Trace Publ Co. Brooklandville, MD. 2015. Pp. 25-1 – 25-7. ISBN 978-1-57400-149-5.

Henricks WH, Bauer TW. "Implementation of Whole Slide Imaging in Surgical Pathology". In: Pirwani A. et al. (Eds). Digital Pathology, ISBN 978-089189-6104, ASCP Press. 2016.

Selected Presentations

"The Interface: Present and Future in Total Joint Replacement" Royal Society of Medicine, London, England. Sept. 28, 1992.

"The Biologic Consequences of Wear Debris" Credit Lecture of The Hip Society of Japan, Fukui University, Fukui, Japan, November 20, 1992.

"The Pathology of Total Joint Arthroplasty: Why Implants Work and Why Implants Fail". Lee Riley Annual Lecture. The Johns Hopkins University. Baltimore, MD, April 12, 1996.

"The Basic Science of Bone Grafting". Charles H. Herndon International Symposium on Bone Allograft. Washington DC, April 30, 1999.

"Skeletal Substitute Materials for Orthopedic Trauma Applications". Australia Orthopedic Association, Sydney, Australia, August 15, 2001.

"Biologic Response to Motion Sparing Implants". Spinal Arthroplasty Society, Vienna, Austria. May 8, 2004.

"Maintaining Journalistic Excellence: The Peer Review Process". Closed annual meeting of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons. Chicago IL, September 14, 2006.

"Update on Diagnosing Periprosthetic Infections". The Peter D. Bullough Honorary Lecture in Pathology; Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York. November 5, 2010.

"Validating Whole Slide Imaging for Primary and Consultation Diagnosis in Surgical Pathology" 19th Congress of the Chinese Society of Pathology. Guangzhou, China. November 11, 2013.

"100 Years of The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: How the Internet has Transformed Orthopaedic Research Publishing". University of Bath Biomechanics Symposium ("50-years of Musculoskeletal Research"). Sept. 12, 2016, Bath, U.K.


Dr. Bauer’s main research focus has been to investigate mechanisms of success and failure of orthopedic reconstructive procedures, devices, and bone graft materials. He uses advanced microscopic and imaging methods to evaluate the biocompatibility of new materials, to document mechanisms of implant fixation or loosening, and to evaluate the consequences of device wear. He collaborates with surgeons, radiologists, and biomedical engineers to correlate observations made using new magnetic resonance imaging techniques, with intraoperative findings and the microscopic appearance of periprosthetic tissues. He also studies the optimum use of laboratory tests for the care of orthopaedic patients, and the diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. Most recently, he has validated the use of high-resolution digital scanning of whole microscope slides for diagnosis in surgical pathology.

Industry Relationships

Industry Relationships

HSS has a long history of supporting appropriate relationships with industry because they advance HSS's mission to provide the highest quality patient care, improve patient mobility, and enhance the quality of life for all, and to advance the science of orthopedic surgery, rheumatology, and their related disciplines through research and education.

Below are the healthcare industry relationships reported by Dr. Bauer as of February 16, 2023.

  • Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - Editorial Board Member
  • Journal of Orthopaedic Science - Editorial Board Member
  • Leica Biosystems - Consultant
  • Moximed, Inc. - Consultant
  • Springer - Editorial Board Member

HSS and its physicians make this information available to patients and the public, thus creating a transparent environment for those who are interested in this information. Further, the HSS Conflicts of Interest and Commitment Policy prohibits physicians from collecting royalties on products they develop that are used on patients at HSS.

Patients should feel free to ask their HSS physicians questions about these relationships.

Dr. Bauer in the News