Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that encourage the growth of cartilage and bone. Recombinant forms of these proteins are often used by surgeons when trying to help bones heal, when healing might be sub-optimal. Utilization of BMPs in children is controversial, and is not currently FDA-approved. The aim of this study is to assess how BMPs are used in children through analysis of discharge record databases: In which procedures and with which diagnoses are BMPs most frequently used? What are the long term outcomes following BMP utilization in children? Is BMP utilization associated with any post-operative complications in the long term? The medical student will perform a comprehensive review of the literature on this topic. He or she will work with diagnosis and procedure codes to identify cases in which BMP was used. He or she may help with statistical analysis depending on his/her experience and interest. He or she will contribute to interpretation of results, and will have the opportunity to prepare results for presentation and publication. The medical student will also have the opportunity to gain clinical experience in pediatric orthopedics, working with pediatric orthopedic surgeons both in the operating room and the clinic.