The increasing demand for total knee arthroplasty (TKR) and the initiatives to reduce health care spending have put the responsibility for efficient care on hospitals and providers. Multidisciplinary care pathways have been shown to shorten length of stay and result in improved short-term outcomes. However, common problems such as post-op nausea, orthostasis, and quad weakness remain, while reliance on discharge to rehabilitation facilities may also prolong hospital stay.).
Our aim was to document that combined modifications of our traditional clinical pathway for unilateral TKR could lead to improved short-term outcomes. We pose the following research questions. Can pathway modifications which include intra-articular infusion and saphenous nerve block (SNB) provide adequate pain relief and eliminate common side effects promoting earlier mobilization? Can planning for discharge to home avoid in-patient rehab stays? Can these combined modifications decrease length of stay even in patients with complex comorbidities indicated by higher ASA class? Will discharge to home incur an increase in complications or a failure to achieve knee range of motion?
Patients and Methods
A retrospective review was performed and identified two cohorts. Group A included 116 patients that underwent unilateral TKR for osteoarthritis between August 2009 and August 2010. Group B included 171 patients that underwent unilateral TKR for osteoarthritis between February 2012 to February 2013. Group A patients were treated with spinal anesthesia with patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA)/femoral nerve block (FNB) for the first 48 h after surgery. Discharge planning was initiated after admission. Group B had spinal anesthesia with SNB and received a continuous intra-articular infusion of 0.2% ropivicaine for 48 h post-op. Discharge planning was initiated with a case manager prior to hospitalization and discharge to home was declared the preferred approach. An intensive home PT program was made available through a program with our local home care agency. Outcomes assessed and compared between groups included length of stay, incidence of post-op nausea, dizziness, in-hospital falls, occurrence of complications including wound infection and the recovery of range of motion at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 1 year post-op.
Pain control was similar between the groups but Group B had fewer side effects. With the new pathway, length of stay (LOS) was reduced from 4.32 to 3.64 days with a similar LOS reduction across all ASA classes. There was no increase in Group B wound or other complications. Return of ROM was similar between groups.
Our findings suggest that replacing PCEA and FNB with intra-articular analgesia with a SNB allows for improved early recovery following TKR. That, combined with pre-op discharge planning and initiation of an intensive home PT program, reduced average length of stay.
Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Study Level III
HSS Journal, an academic peer-reviewed journal published three times a year, February, July and October. The Journal accepts and publishes peer reviewed articles from around the world that contribute to the advancement of the knowledge of musculoskeletal diseases and disorders.