A DXA test, which stands for Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, is a low-level X-ray measuring important bone sites, and it is the most commonly used technique to assess bone density. It is painless, non-invasive, and takes about 10 minutes.
The DXA bone density test will report your bone density in numbers. These numbers are sometimes reduced to an overall number -- your T score. In a DXA test, the amount of mineralized tissue within a section of spine or hip is measured and expressed as grams per cm2. Values are compared to others of the same age and gender (Z score) or to healthy 35-year-olds of the same gender who are felt to have attained peak bone mass (T score). These scores are then expressed as measurements of deviation from the average.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has established criteria for the diagnosis of osteoporosis:
The two most available forms of calcium are calcium carbonate and calcium citrate. Either type is an acceptable replacement. Some evidence supports better absorption of calcium citrate. This preparation may be a more judicious choice in patients with achlorhydria or nephrolithiasis. It can be taken with or without meals. Calcium carbonate is better absorbed with meals because it requires an acid stomach for maximal absorption.
Most authorities, including the National Osteoporosis Foundation, recommend the addition of antiresorptive therapy if the T score is -1.5 SD or greater with major risk factors for fracture, or - 2.0 SD or greater without risk factors. Of course, decisions about treatment must be made based on each individual's bone density and associated medical conditions.
Drugs now prescribed slow bone destruction and resorption. They include: